Lawful Development Certificate appeals
A lawful development certificate (LDC) is a statutory document
confirming that the use, operation or activity named in it a lawful for planning control purposes.
Once granted, the certificate will remian valid for the use or development described in it,
on the land it describes.
You must apply to the local planning authority (LPA) for such a certificate. If the LPA
refuse the application (or do not give a decision within the time period - usually 8 weeks) you can appeal.
QUOTE: "Ask the right questions. The
fastest way to change the answers you receive – from yourself and others – is to change the questions you
Certificates of Lawful Use or Development are certificates issued by the Department,
which establish that the use or development of land is lawful in two circumstances:
(a) Article 83A Certificate of Lawfulness of Existing Use or Development.
This is where you wish to confirm that any existing use, or operation, or activity in
breach of a condition or limitation on a planning permission that has already taken place is lawful on the
date specified in the application. It is defined as being lawful if enforcement action cannot be taken
against it. This may be because it had, or did not need planning permission, or it may be the case that the
use or operation took place so long ago that the time for enforcement action has expired;
(b) Article 83B Certificate of Lawfulness of Proposed Use or Development.
This is where you wish to confirm that what you are proposing would be lawful i.e. it
would not require express planning permission. For example you may need to establish that what you have
proposed does not constitute development, is ‘permitted development’, or already has planning
What are the benefits of a Certificate of Lawful
There are benefits in gaining a Certificate of Lawful Use or Development. It is a
determination that has legal status providing certainty to prospective developers and purchasers of land and
buildings. Certificates of Lawful Use or Development will be particularly beneficial to those participating
in the housing market. Solicitors representing purchasers of, for example, extended dwellings, will usually
require documentary evidence that extensions such as conservatories are lawful. This evidence may assist with
the sale of property. Certificates of Lawful Use or Development also provide the necessary evidence that any
works being undertaken are lawful if, for example, a neighbour were to make an enquiry or complaint about the
Enforcement Action - Do any time limits apply?
Article 67 B of the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1991 specifies time limits for
enforcement action. If you are applying for a Certificate of Lawful Use or Development for existing
development you will need to demonstrate, with evidence, that the following time limits have
i. in the case of operational development, that the operations were substantially completed at
least 4 years ago;
ii. in the case of a change of use of a building to a single dwelling house, that the change took
place at least 4
iii. in any other case, such as a change of use or breach of condition of a planning permission,
that the change of
use or breach of condition occurred at least 10 years ago.
Once these time limits have passed, no enforcement action may be taken in respect of the breach.
If you are applying for a Certificate of Lawful Use or Development in respect of a
proposed use of buildings, land, or operations intended to be carried out,
you must do so before commencing work.
Download documents and diagrams of
How do I apply for a Certificate of Lawful Use or Development
You will need to complete and submit the appropriate application form, along with the
correct fee and additional information which is detailed on the application forms and accompanying guidance
notes. Separate application forms are available for existing and proposed development (forms LDC1 and LDC2).
If you are unsure which application form to complete please discuss with a planning officer before you
submit. Copies of these application forms can be obtained from the Planning Service website at, www.planningni.gov.uk/devel_control/application_forms/forms.htm#LDC1
or any Divisional Planning Office.
You may wish to appoint an agent to act on your behalf. This can be an architect, planner, surveyor
or other professional adviser. All matters concerning your application will be addressed to them.
How much does it cost?
Information regarding fees can be obtained from your local Divisional Planning Office
or the Planning Service website at http://www.planningni.gov.uk/Corporate_Services/Planning_Legislation/Stat_Instruments/446.pdf
Contact information can be found at the back of this leaflet. The fee for a Certificate
for development which has been carried out is the same as the fee for a planning application for that
development. The fee for a proposed development is half the appropriate fee for a planning application. These
fees are not refundable nor can they be offset against the fee for a subsequent planning application.
Concessionary fees are generally the same as for planning applications.
What information is required?
The information required is listed on the application form and accompanying guidance
notes. It is in your interest to provide as much accurate and detailed information as possible. If any of the
necessary information is not provided, is vague or unclear, the application may be considered invalid,
causing delay or refused. The onus of proof is on you as the applicant to demonstrate to the Department that a
Certificate ought to be issued.
Please ensure that you submit original copies of any evidence in support of your
application e.g. utility bills (rates/NIE), copies of other statutory approvals etc. Planning Service will
arrange for these to be returned once the application has been decided if requested. In addition, note that
your application will be held on a public register and you should think carefully about submitting
information of a sensitive nature. Unlike planning applications, however, there is no requirement for
Planning Service to publicise applications for Certificates of Lawful Use or Development, nor will neighbour
notification or consultation with the local Council be carried out.
Please note that you must not make false or misleading statements or withhold material
information with intent to deceive. If you do so you can be prosecuted and any certificate obtained can be
If valid, your application will be acknowledged and assigned to a planning officer. The
application will be assessed against the relevant planning legislation. Depending on the circumstances, a
site visit may be required as part of this assessment. Further information may be sought if necessary to
determine the application. The process is unlikely to take longer than two months if all the necessary
information to determine the application is submitted at the same time. If granted, the certificate remains
valid for the precise use, operation or activity described in it, on the land it describes and provided there
is no material change in circumstances. A Certificate of Lawful Use or Development shows only that planning
permission is not required. When a certificate is refused an application for planning permission may be
made in the normal way.
If your application is not decided within two months or other agreed timescale or is
refused, in whole or part, you have the right to appeal to the Planning
Appeals Commission (PAC). The PAC may issue a certificate if it determines that the refusal is not well
Applicants should note that they may need other approvals and consents such as building
control. If you have further queries about this leaflet you should contact your local Divisional Planning Office.